Industries: Pharma / Biotech

Granulation, Tableting and Capsule Technology

Course Director: Michael Gamlen, Ph.D.

Course Description - Course runs 9:00 to 5:00 both days

This two-day course will focus on the technologies used in pharmaceutical granulation compression and encapsulation including powder blending, dry and wet granulation, drying, compression and encapsulation. The course will focus particularly on the control technologies and how they interact with each other and on the product. It will be of benefit to scientists and technologists working in product development, manufacturing, production support, quality control and regulatory affairs.

This is a highly interactive course with plenty of opportunities for delegates to bring their own problems and topics of interest. On completing the course, attendees will have a thorough understanding of the technologies used to make tablets and capsules, and how these are applied to the control tablet and capsule manufacturing process.

Who Should Attend

This course has been created to assist those involved in all aspects of granulation, tableting and capsule technology. The course will be especially useful for those involved in:

  • Formulation development
  • Tablet and capsule product and process development
  • Tablet and capsule production support staff
  • Regulatory Affairs
  • QA/QC personnel who need to improve their understanding of tablet and capsule manufacturing technologies
  • Engineering Support staff

It will also assist experienced process development staff who wish to expand their understanding of why products and processes break down.

Course Agenda

First Day

Introductions and course objectives

Powder blending and blend quality assessment

  • Equipment
  • Process control
  • Critical Process Parameters
  • Process validation and development of design space

Direct compression – pros and cons

Granulation – why and how

Dry granulation technologies

  • Roller compaction
  • Slugging
  • Critical Process Parameters and process control

Wet granulation technologies

  • Fluid bed (spray) granulation
  • High speed mixer granulation

Second Day


  • Drying curves and mass transfer
  • Oven drying
  • Microwave drying
  • Fluid bed drying and fluid bed drier control

Sieving and milling

  • Cone mills
  • Critical process parameters
  • Impact of critical process parameters on product quality

Lubricant blending

  • Blending technologies
  • Blending and over-blending
  • External lubrication

Critical Quality Attributes of tablet and capsule intermediates


  • Compression technologies
  • Tablet machine control. Critical process parameters
  • Compaction speed effects
  • Tablet defects


  • Three principles of machine operation
  • Filling problems
  • Effect of capsule shell material

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of the course, attendees will:

  • Have improved their understanding of available granulation, tableting and capsule technologies and how they interact with each other
  • Gain a solid foundation for the basis of tablet and capsule technology selection
  • Be familiar with which pharmaceutical technologies are best suited to particular organizations and products
  • Understand the causes of why common manufacturing defects occur and the solutions to prevent them